Darwin formulated the hypothesis that some individuals would be better equipped for survival than others and that those who were less equipped would not survive on the work of famous economist and scholar Thomas Robert Malthus.
Darwin was very much influenced by Thomas Malthus who said that population growth would always overpower food supply growth, creating perpetual states of hunger, disease, and struggle and survival which caught the attention of Darwin and thus formulated his above hypothesis.
The answer is B. Thomas Malthus, who studied population growth.
do you have a picture?
the second type of galaxy is called a barred spiral, which has a thing called a bar straddling the nucleus