Summarize how neurons communicate at the synapse in one – two, well-crafted paragraphs. your paragraph must include each of the terms listed below. underline each term in your paragraph.
1. A reflex arc is a short, fast pathway of response to stimuli, whose center of coordination occurs in the spinal cord.
2. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that communicate pre-synaptic and post-synaptic terminals, causing the latter to have an effect.
3. The central nervous system is formed by the brain, its structures and the spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system is made up of the peripheral nerves.
Explanation:1. Reflex arc
A reflex act is a rapid and involuntary motor response to an external stimulus, which is mediated by a process called reflex arc:Once a stimulus has been produced, it is received by an external receptor and travels through sensitive nerve fibers to the spinal cord. In the spinal cord occurs the processing of the information received and elaborates a response. The response is conducted - in the form of a nerve impulse - through the motor nerve fibers, producing the reflex response, the muscle movement.
The reflex arc involves the somatic peripheral nervous system, the spinal cord and the effector is the skeletal muscle.2. Action of neurotransmitters at a synapses
A synapse is formed by a presynaptic terminal, a synaptic space and a post-synaptic terminal.
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that act as a means of communication between neurons, or between a neuron and an effector organ.The presynaptic terminal is responsible for releasing a neurotransmitter into the synaptic space. The neurotransmitter, free in the synaptic space, binds to a specific receptor in the post-synaptic terminal. The neurotransmitter-receptor binding causes biochemical changes in the effecting cell.
The chemical nature of a neurotransmitter changes, according to the type of synapse:Interneuronal synapses require amino acids as neurotransmitters. Between a neuron and a gland the neurotransmitter is a neuropeptide. Between a neuron and a muscle the neurotransmitter is an ester.
The classic example of neurotransmission occurs in the motor plate (skeletal muscle) where the motor neuron possesses the presynaptic terminal, the neurotransmitter may be acetylcholine and the muscle constitutes the post-synaptic terminal.3. Central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS)
The central nervous system constitutes the center of reception, integration and coordination of all the activity that occurs in the body. It consists of the brain, cerebellum, associated structures and the spinal cord.
CNS is a complex organization of nervous tissue that receives all the information from outside and inside the body, processes it, and elaborates appropriate responses that are transmitted through the nerves.
The peripheral nervous system is made up of all the nerves that come out of the central nervous system. These nerves are the set of neuronal axons responsible for the transmission of nerve impulses to and from the CNS.
PNS consists of:12 cranial pairs, coming from the brain. 31 pairs of spinal nerves, coming from the spinal cord.
Additionally, SNP is divided into:Somatic peripheral nervous system, with voluntary action on skeletal musculature. Autonomic nervous system, divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic, whose function is the functioning of internal organs, in an involuntary way.
The coordination that exists between CNS and PNS is what allows a living organism to fulfill all its functions in an adequate way.
Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
Schizophrenia is a nervous disorder of the brain that affects proper thinking, speech and behaviour. Dopamine is a chemical neurotransmitter that relays signals between the body and the brain
It just does
Synapse, more like MY ALLergies
The answer is: Motor Neurons
This occurs when the motor neurons deliver nerve impulses from the spinal cord to the part of the body where a response to the stimulus is needed. In the above example, the response is the muscle contraction to quickly pull the hand away from the hot pot pan.
This is simple explanation of the question.
The answer is; A
When an impulse from the motor neuron reached the neuromuscular junction, the voltage-dependent calcium channels are activated and the neurotransmitter released from the presynaptic cleft. When the neurotransmitter binds to their receptors on the sarcolemma, the muscle fibers become depolarised; the calcium is released from their vesicles. The Ca2+ ions are important in the power stroke because they bind to troponin. Upon binding calcium, troponin moves tropomyosin away from the myosin-binding sites on actin. Powered by the energy from ATP molecule, the myosin is able to bind on the actin and slides over the actin filament.
The correct answer is:
•motor neuron action potential,
The contraction of a muscle cell begins with the nerve impulse arriving at the neuromuscular junction (motor neuron muscle cell junction)
• neurotransmitter release,
When action potential gets to the end of motor neuron it triggers it to release neurotransmitters which will bind to its receptor on the muscle cell
•muscle cell action potential,
Binding of the neurotransmitter to its receptor on the muscle cell will fire its own action potential.
• release of calcium ions from SR,
The nerve impulse is carried to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and consequently Ca2+ channels open , Ca2+ leave the sarcoplasmic reticulum and attach to troponin – the protein molecules that are situated on actin filaments.
•ATP-driven power stroke,
Active sites of actin are open thanks to Ca2+ and myosin heads can bind to them, using the ATP energy
• sliding of myofilaments
The correct sequence of events for muscle contractions is as follows : :
1. motor neuron action potential.
2. neurotransmitter release.
3. muscle cell action potential.
4. calcium ion release from SR.
5. ATP-driven power stroke.
6. sliding of myofilaments neurotransmitter release.