Answer No 1:
a) The process of Calvin Cycle occurs during the time of bright sunlight. Calvin cycle is a process through which ATP and NADPH are utilized to make sugar from carbon dioxide molecules.
b) In darkness, the process of Calvin Cycle continues in the stroma. ATP and NADPH are used to convert carbon dioxide into water.
c) If a plant is kept in darkness for a long period of time, then the synthesis of light dependent products, ATP, would be less. As a result, the plant will not be able to carry out photosynthesis.
Answer No 2:
The products of glycolysis are 2 molecules of pyruvates, 2 molecules of NADH, and 2 molecules of ATP.
4 molecules of ATP are formed in total,out of which 2 molecules of ATP are lost.
The presence of oxygen acts as a signal to move pyruvate molecules into the organelle, mitochondria. As a result, 3 times more ATP are formed than the process of glycolysis. This process can be termed as cellular respiration.
Answer No 3:
Without the process of cytokinesis, the process of mitosis cannot take place. Mitosis can be described as a process of cell division by which 2 daughter cells are formed which are identical to the parent cell.
Cytokinesis can be described as the process of division of nucleus. If cytokinesis did not occur with mitosis then a single cell will end up having two nuclei.
If cytokinesis occurs but mitosis does not, then the cell willeither divide from the nucleus or a cell will be formed without the nucleus. In both cases, cell death would occur.
Answer No 4:
Similarity: The DNA in the embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells and skin cells of the same person would be similar. They will have the same chromosomes.
Embryonic stem cells have the capability to divide into every cell of the body. They are known to be pluripotent.
The adult stem cells cannot divide into every cell of the body, yet can divide into some cell types only. They are multipotent.
Skin cells can divide only into skin cells, not any other type of cells.
i. In bright sunlight, the Calvin cycle takes place in the stroma. At the time of the Calvin cycle, the products of the light-dependent reactants, that is, ATP and NADPH are used to transform molecules of carbon dioxide into high-energy sugars.
ii. In the darkness, the Calvin cycle also takes place in the stroma. During the Calvin cycle, the products of the light-dependent reactions, that is, ATP and NADPH are used to transform the molecules of carbon dioxide into high-energy sugars.
iii. If the plant has been kept in dark for an extended period of time, then there may be not enough production of ATP and NADPH taking place in order to continue the Calvin cycle.
In daylight calvin cycle occurs, in darkness Calvin cycle occurs along with conversion of CO2 into sugar and in extended darkness Calvin cycle stops
During daylight, Calvin cycle takes place within the stoma. In this process, energy obtained from sun is converted and stored into bio molecules namely ATP and NADPH.
During darkness, Calvin cycle takes place but the energy of biomolecules i.e ATP and NADPH is used to convert carbon dioxide into sugar. Prolonged exposure to darkness causes reduction in production of energy molecules. Also, the Calvin cycle stops in extreme darkness for a long period of time.
Photosynthesis consists of both light-dependent reactions and light-independent reactions. ... The dark reactions then occur outside the thylakoid. In these reactions, the energy from ATP and NADPH is used to fix carbon dioxide
Please read in the explanation section.
At the time of photosynthesis, daylight is used by the plants to transform water and dioxide into the aldohexose and gas. Three types of reactions can occur inside of the stroma in three conditions. Those are briefly given below:
Bright Sunlight: In the bright daylight, usually high energy sugars are produced. The Calvin cycle occurs within the stroma. ATP and NADPH, which were produced during photosynthesis, are used in this Calvin cycle. Using this Calvin cycle, the products ATP and NADPH are used to transform the molecules of carbonic acid gas into high-energy sugars. These sugars are used later in the further cellular processes.
Here, photosynthesis changes sunlight into chemical energy. Here, spiling water has done to release O2 and to makes CO2 into sugar.
Darkness: As well as the bright sunlight stage, In the dark, the Calvin cycle continuously happens within the stroma. At this stage, sugar also produced. During the Calvin cycle, the products ATP and NADPH are used to transform the molecules of CO2 into high-energy sugars. We can say that the same reactions like bright sunlight occurs in the darkened stage.
In this stage, ATP gives the energy, and NADPH provides the electrons. To fix the CO2 into carbohydrates, energy and electrons are required.
Extended darkness period: Here, decrease condition found. There will be a decrease in the rate of products ATP and NADPH if the plants are present within the dark period for a long time. During the dark period, the Calvin cycle can't be continued. This happens because the production rate of ATP and NADP reduced because of the lack of sunlight.
As the Calvin cycle stops here, no significant chemical reaction found in this stage.
Stroma in biology refers to the fluid present between the grana, where the reactions for the formation of carbohydrate takes place in the chloroplast of plant cells taking part in the process of photosynthesis.
In the bright daylight, the Calvin cycle takes place within the stroma. Throughout the Calvin cycle, the outcomes, that is, the ATP and NADPH are the conventional convert molecules of carbonic acid gas into high energy sugars.
In the darkness, the Calvin cycle conjointly takes place within the stroma. Through the Calvin cycle, the products ATP and NADPH are used to convert the molecules of carbon dioxide into the high energy sugars.
There will be a reduction in the formation of ATP and NADPH if the plants are kept in the dark for an extended time duration and also the Calvin cycle cannot be sustained.
Stroma, in a biological explanation, the fluid in between grana, where carbohydrate formation reactions occur in the chloroplast of plant cells photosynthesizing.
In the bright daylight, the Calvin cycle happens indoors in the stroma. throughout the Calvin cycle, the results ATP and NADPH are conventional convert molecules of carbonic acid gas into high-energy sugars.
In the darkness, the Calvin cycle conjointly occurs within the stroma. through the Calvin cycle, the products ATP and NADPH are used to change molecules of CO2 into high-energy sugars.
There will be a decrease in the products ATP and NADPH if the plants are unbroken within the dark for a protracted time and also the Calvin cycle can't be sustained.