To obtain water
Lichens are typically the first organisms to colonize bare rock. They are therefore the pioneer species in primary succession. Many organisms require soil before they can colonize an area. Lichens that colonize bare rock secrete acids that break down the rock and start the soil-production process.
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hi, natural selection of the peppered moth during the industrial revolution in 19th-century england is an example of an outlier in the study of evolution. during this time, pollution from factories filled the forests, coating trees in a layer of soot—turning white trees black
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