The first step is the retreat of the glacier. Next, pioneer species begin to inhabit the exposed land. These species include lichens and they break down rocks and create soil. Some years later, more complex plants start growing in the soil and insects also begin to inhabit it. The remains of all of these organisms add nutritional value to the soil. As soil thickens, more complex plants and animals inhabit the region, until finally, the soil is thick enough for entire forests to grow.
Pioneer, Dryas, Alder, and Spruce
The order of the stages of primary succession beginning with glacial retreat as seen at Glacier Bay, Alaska, are Pioneer, Dryas, Alder, and Spruce.
-Primary succession occurs in lifeless areas, the regions in which the soil is incapable of sustaining life as a result of factors such as lava flows, newly formed sand dunes, or rocks left from a retreating glacier.
-The order of stages of primary succession begining with glacial retreat is; Pioneer (make soil), dryas (build up soil), alder(provide nitrogen), and spruce (highest nitrogen, shade out alders).
small, big, or no change could occur in the phenotype. it could cause something as simple as a cats ears to curl backwards or something as frighting as death. it could also occur in the protien-coding area and have an effect on that but no effect on the amino acids. what has to occur is a changing in the hox gene or the control gene.
idk lol use google m8