In an ion, the sum of the oxidation states is equal to the overall ionic charge. note that the sign of the oxidation states and the number of atoms associated with each oxidation state must be considered. in oh-, for example, the oxygen atom has an oxidation state of 2 and the hydrogen atom has an oxidation state of +1, for a total of ( -2 ) + ( +1 ) = -1
(i) what is the oxidation state of each individual carbon atom in c2o4 2^-
express the oxidation state numerically (e. g., +1).
(ii) which element is reduced in this reaction?
2hcl+ 2kmno4 + 3h2c2o4 ? 6co2 +2mno2 + 2kcl + 4h2o
Based on the diatomic ion, we solve for the unknown oxidation state of carbon, assuming that the oxygen works with -2, by a change balance:
We first must each ion's oxidation states as follows:
Then, for the reduction half reaction we identify the manganese as the element decreasing its oxidation state based on:
In addition, the carbon is oxidized from +3 to +4 (increase the oxidation state).
The oxygen all have a -2 oxidation state. (peroxides are exceptions)
The chemical structure is symmetrical. Both carbon are equivalent.
2 (oxidation state of carbon) + 4 (oxidation state of oxygen) = charge of ion.
2 (oxidation state of carbon) + 4 (-2) = -2
oxidation state of carbon = +3
In this case, by knowing that the molecule has the following oxidation states structure, one can solve for the carbon's oxidation state via the total ion's charge as shown below:
Therefore, the carbon's oxidation state is +3