The paris peace conference
german colonies were handed in trusteeship to the victorious allies. no provisions were made to end secret diplomacy or preserve freedom of the seas. wilson did gain approval for his proposal for a league of nations. dismayed by the overall results, but hopeful that a strong league could prevent future wars, he returned to present the treaty of versailles to the senate.
defeating the league of nations
unfortunately for wilson, he was met with stiff opposition. the republican leader of the senate, henry cabot lodge, was very suspicious of wilson and his treaty. article x of the league of nations required the united states to respect the territorial integrity of member states. although there was no requirement that would compel the united states to declare war if another country violated any of these principles, the united states might still be bound to impose embargos or to sever diplomatic relations with the guilty party. either way, the chance to remain neutral or uninvolved in future conflicts would be taken away. lodge viewed the league as a supranational government that would limit the power of the american government from determining its own affairs. others believed the league was the sort of entangling alliance the united states had avoided since george washington’s farewell. lodge sabotaged the league covenant by declaring the united states exempt article x. he attached reservations, or amendments, to the treaty to this effect. wilson, bedridden from a debilitating stroke, was unable to accept these changes. he asked senate democrats to vote against the treaty of versailles unless the lodge reservations were dropped. neither side budged, and the treaty went down to defeat.
why did the united states fail to ratify the versailles treaty and join the league of nations? personal enmity between wilson and lodge played a part. wilson might have prudently invited a prominent republican to accompany him to paris to ensure its later passage. wilson’s fading health eliminated the possibility of making a strong personal appeal on behalf of the treaty. ethnic groups in the united states its defeat. german americans felt their fatherland was being treated too harshly. italian americans felt more territory should have been awarded to italy. irish americans criticized the treaty for failing to address the issue of irish independence. diehard american isolationists worried about a permanent global involvement. the stubbornness of president wilson led him to ask his own party to reject the treaty. the final results of all these factors had mammoth long-term consequences. without the involvement of the world’s newest superpower, the league of nations was doomed to failure.
over the next two decades, the united states would sit on the sidelines as the treaty of versailles and the ineffective league of nations would set the stage for an even bloodier clash. under the heavy weight of reparations (an estimated 132 billion gold marks, or 31.5 billion u. s. dollars), germany’s economy suffered. the weimar republic printed a tremendous amount of money in order to combat these costs—only to dramatically devalue their own currency and cause hyperinflation. in the midst of this economic depression and territorial loss, there was a feeling of excessive humiliation and blame being placed on germany for the war. propaganda began surfacing in germany that supported this position, exciting nationalist sentiments. likewise, italian nationalists felt they had been cheated and began showing similar signs of unrest. with its weak structure, its low membership, and its lack of authority to carry out its purpose, the league of nations could do nothing to prevent this and other threats to world peace. it failed to protect china from japanese invasion and imperialism. it failed to prevent the italian invasion of ethiopia, the spanish civil war, or the expansion of the soviet union. perhaps most importantly, it failed to thwart the rise of fascism in europe, allowing leaders such as adolf hitler and benito mussolini to take power. by then, world war ii was near unavoidable. which of the following statements best summarizes a central idea of the text? a. president wilson’s fourteen points were met with total enthusiasm and agreement, but his ideals on paper were largely ineffective in practice, even with u. s. participation. b. the treaty of versailles was not written with the intention to blame germany, which did not start wwi, but international resentment was so strong that it overpowered the treaty. c. president wilson’s personal health was the main reason the u. s. did not ratify the treaty of versailles; his weakened state did not inspire congress to follow his lead. d. the harsh policies of the treaty of versailles and the toothless authority of the league of nations contributed to future tragedy and conflict.
The Senate rejected the Treaty that was based primarily on the objections to the League of Nations. The United States wouldn't ratify the treaty and/or join the League of Nations.
I hope this helps.
The United States failed to ratify the Kyoto Protocol, an international agreement signed by other developed nations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
Explanation: Although the United States emits most of Earth's carbon dioxide, its policies do not reflect concern over its environmental effects.
I think it is: "Americans were concerned that the treaty would not protect the environment." Sorry if this is wrong!
The Kyoto Protocol was initially taken in December 1997 in Kyoto the oldest and traditional city of japan and entered into force in February 2005.
In September 2011, 191 countries signed and ratified the protocol.
The primary goal of this protocol is to secure a global environment agreement.
The main issue with the treaty is that it has not been ratified by the United States.
Explanation:United states emit 35% of the world’s greenhouse gases which also mentioned in Annex I of the Kyoto Protocol.President Clinton signed the Kyoto protocol but he did not ratify the protocol, later President Bush eliminated the signature.Bush's focused reason for pulling back from the Kyoto protocol is the economic effect on the United States if they reduced emissions "coal industry" would be the most affected one.
The Kyoto Protocol was signed by President Clinton, but Senate refused to pass it. President Bush rejected the Kyoto Protocol, and the Kyoto Protocol was consequentially killed.
Hope this helps!
The US Congress did not want to support a free-trade agreement.
The US congress blocked the treaty because most of the expectations from the country were not met, and they wanted third worl countries to accept that they´d also lower their CO2 emissions, otherwise the industries that were about to be heavily taxed by the States, would just flee to third world countries where they wouldn´t have to pay those taxes and profit would be larger with cheaper wages.
A resolution was passed in Senate on the qualifications for which a treaty would have to meet for Senate to pass it. The Kyoto Protocol did not meet these standards; not only did the Senate as a whole not one to pass it, it wasn't allowed to pass it. The main concerns were that firstly, many developed countries were not participating in it, and secondly, there were fears that the Kyoto Protocol would harm the American economy (especially the coal industry) and either way wouldn't be very effectual at combatting global warming.
Hope this helps! God bless! :)
german colonies were handed in trusteeship to the victorious allies...