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English, 08.11.2019 01:31 srosrguezbracho

The paris peace conference
german colonies were handed in trusteeship to the victorious allies. no provisions were made to end secret diplomacy or preserve freedom of the seas. wilson did gain approval for his proposal for a league of nations. dismayed by the overall results, but hopeful that a strong league could prevent future wars, he returned to present the treaty of versailles to the senate.

defeating the league of nations
unfortunately for wilson, he was met with stiff opposition. the republican leader of the senate, henry cabot lodge, was very suspicious of wilson and his treaty. article x of the league of nations required the united states to respect the territorial integrity of member states. although there was no requirement that would compel the united states to declare war if another country violated any of these principles, the united states might still be bound to impose embargos or to sever diplomatic relations with the guilty party. either way, the chance to remain neutral or uninvolved in future conflicts would be taken away. lodge viewed the league as a supranational government that would limit the power of the american government from determining its own affairs. others believed the league was the sort of entangling alliance the united states had avoided since george washington’s farewell. lodge sabotaged the league covenant by declaring the united states exempt article x. he attached reservations, or amendments, to the treaty to this effect. wilson, bedridden from a debilitating stroke, was unable to accept these changes. he asked senate democrats to vote against the treaty of versailles unless the lodge reservations were dropped. neither side budged, and the treaty went down to defeat.

why did the united states fail to ratify the versailles treaty and join the league of nations? personal enmity between wilson and lodge played a part. wilson might have prudently invited a prominent republican to accompany him to paris to ensure its later passage. wilson’s fading health eliminated the possibility of making a strong personal appeal on behalf of the treaty. ethnic groups in the united states its defeat. german americans felt their fatherland was being treated too harshly. italian americans felt more territory should have been awarded to italy. irish americans criticized the treaty for failing to address the issue of irish independence. diehard american isolationists worried about a permanent global involvement. the stubbornness of president wilson led him to ask his own party to reject the treaty. the final results of all these factors had mammoth long-term consequences. without the involvement of the world’s newest superpower, the league of nations was doomed to failure.

over the next two decades, the united states would sit on the sidelines as the treaty of versailles and the ineffective league of nations would set the stage for an even bloodier clash. under the heavy weight of reparations (an estimated 132 billion gold marks, or 31.5 billion u. s. dollars), germany’s economy suffered. the weimar republic printed a tremendous amount of money in order to combat these costs—only to dramatically devalue their own currency and cause hyperinflation. in the midst of this economic depression and territorial loss, there was a feeling of excessive humiliation and blame being placed on germany for the war. propaganda began surfacing in germany that supported this position, exciting nationalist sentiments. likewise, italian nationalists felt they had been cheated and began showing similar signs of unrest. with its weak structure, its low membership, and its lack of authority to carry out its purpose, the league of nations could do nothing to prevent this and other threats to world peace. it failed to protect china from japanese invasion and imperialism. it failed to prevent the italian invasion of ethiopia, the spanish civil war, or the expansion of the soviet union. perhaps most importantly, it failed to thwart the rise of fascism in europe, allowing leaders such as adolf hitler and benito mussolini to take power. by then, world war ii was near unavoidable. which of the following statements best summarizes a central idea of the text? a. president wilson’s fourteen points were met with total enthusiasm and agreement, but his ideals on paper were largely ineffective in practice, even with u. s. participation. b. the treaty of versailles was not written with the intention to blame germany, which did not start wwi, but international resentment was so strong that it overpowered the treaty. c. president wilson’s personal health was the main reason the u. s. did not ratify the treaty of versailles; his weakened state did not inspire congress to follow his lead. d. the harsh policies of the treaty of versailles and the toothless authority of the league of nations contributed to future tragedy and conflict.

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The paris peace conference
german colonies were handed in trusteeship to the victorious allies...
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