A muslim needs to say the first kalimah in order to accept and believe in one God and accept Muhammad as the last prophet. The first kalimah shows belief in one God and shows that a man/woman is a true Muslim.
option d is correct. corroborated sources of historical evidence is necessary to validate a claim about an event in history.
historians tend to use written sources, but audio and visual materials as well as artifacts are important objects that supply information to modern historians.
historical sources are usually divided into two categories: primary and secondary sources. depending on the historian's intent, some sources shift their designation. determining what type of sources toimplement, and the level of credibility and reliability of those sources, is a significant step in critical thinking for the historian.
sorry i really dont know