In the case outlines that follow, each party is represented by an attorney. But this often is not the case, especially in limited jurisdiction courts. People may represent themselves in court without an attorney as long as they follow court rules. They often are called pro per, pro se, or self-represented litigants.
While this guide is intended to give a general overview of the Arizona court system and its procedures, not all cases proceed as outlined here.
Case Processing in Limited Jurisdiction Courts
Limited jurisdiction courts usually process criminal cases as follows:
1. Initial Appearance – This is the defendant’s first appearance in court, and the defendant is advised of the charges. The judge appoints an attorney if the defendant cannot afford one.
2. Arraignment – The defendant appears in court to enter a plea of guilty or not guilty. Many limited jurisdiction courts combine the initial appearance and the arraignment.
3. Trial – If the defendant pleads not guilty, a trial is held. The judge—or at the defendant’s request, a jury—can hear evidence on the charges and find the defendant guilty or not guilty.
4. Sentencing – If the defendant is found guilty, the court imposes the appropriate punishment (sentence).
5. Appeals – Appeals from decisions of limited jurisdiction courts go to superior court. An appeal may be heard as a new trial (a trial de novo), or the superior court judge may review records of trial proceedings if records have been kept. Decisions made in small claims court cannot be appealed.
Superior Court Case Processing
The separated strands of the DNA each serves as a template for the synthesis of a new strand
Explanation: At this step of DNA replication, the two single strands of DNA serve as a template for the synthesis of a new DNA strand, thereby making each of the two new double-stranded DNA to have one new strand and one old strand, a property known as semiconservative.
The synthesis of a new strand is catalyzed by DNA polymerase, an enzyme that attaches free nucleotides in the nucleus to the primer. A primer is a short RNA sequence produced by an enzyme primase, unto which free nucleotides are attached during replication.
Each DNA strand serves as a template for a new DNA strand. Another enzyme (called DNA polymerase) matches exposed bases with new bases that are free-floating in the surrounding fluid. A always bonds with T and C always bonds with G.