Why does an action potential travel in one direction down an axon?
a. because voltage-gated potassium ion channels remain open longer
b. because voltage-gated sodium ion channels cannot immediately reopen
c. because the diffusion of charge can only occur in one direction
d. because it needs to reach the synapse to trigger release of neurotransmitters
so here is the information for current research:
-nrel's geothermal analysts, scientists, and engineers perform a full range of research from developing advanced methods of locating and accessing geothermal resources to exploring innovative technologies to extract and produce clean energy from the heat of the earth
and here is the information for the technology of geothermal energy:
-it's clean and sustainable
-resources of geothermal energy range from the shallow ground to hot water and hot rock found a few miles beneath the earth's surface, and down even deeper to the extremely high temperatures of molten rock called magma
-almost everywhere, the shallow ground or upper 10 feet of the earth's surface maintains a nearly constant temperature between 50° and 60°f (10° and 16°c)
-geothermal heat pumps can tap into this resource to heat and cool buildings
-a geothermal heat pump system consists of a heat pump, an air delivery system (ductwork), and a heat exchanger-a system of pipes buried in the shallow ground near the building
-in the winter, the heat pump removes heat from the heat exchanger and pumps it into the indoor air delivery system
-in the summer, the process is reversed, and the heat pump moves heat from the indoor air into the heat exchanger
-the heat removed from the indoor air during the summer can also be used to provide a free source of hot water
bacteria that live on the ocean floor are sustained by phytoplankton. phytoplankton, microscopic marine photosynthetic organisms, have a vastly significant role to play not only in the marine food web of which they’re part of, but also on a more global scale. despite their infinitely small size in comparison to other marine organisms, these tiny creatures occupy an immensely important ecological niche: they are the foundation of the marine food web, and as primary producers, play key roles in supporting all other organisms in the marine environment, as well as in the regulation of the earth’s climate through the sequestration of carbon, oxygen production, and other related processes. phytoplankton account for roughly half of all global primary productivity; therefore, their significance extends far beyond the marine environment alone. there is an intriguing sense of irony in the realization that these tiny living beings that often live out their existence unnoticed and undetected by the rest of the world, have such a far-reaching impact on the lives of virtually all other living organisms on the planet, particularly on those in the marine environment. the world that we have become accustomed to has been and is continuously shaped by the workings of these miniscule yet vital “plants of the sea”.
hope this !
a. because voltage-gated...